THE EFFECT OF HEALTH AND EDUCATION FACILITIES ON POVERTY IN 33 PROVINCES IN INDONESIA (2012-2016 PERIODS)
Poverty is a complex problem faced by all countries in the world, including Indonesia. Poverty may trigger other social problems hindering the development process of a country. The government has done many ways to eradicate poverty, one of which through government expenditure for education and health at every province in Indonesia. Poverty is strongly related with health and education, because one of its causes is the minimum access to health and education. The main problems causing the low level of health among people in poverty are poor access towards basic health service and poor quality of basic health service, which is caused by limited health facilities such as health center and hospital. Furthermore, people in poverty have hoped that education will increase their living standard. The problems they faced are poor access towards educational service and poor quality of educational service. There is disparity among provinces on how poverty is handled, and it is interesting to analyze whether it is an indication of the existence of access towards health and education or not. This research’s goal is to analyze the effect of health and educational facilities on poverty at 33 provinces in Indonesia for the period of 2012-2016. The dependent variable used in this research is the percentage of people in poverty. The independent variables used as health proxy are health center and hospital. The independent variable used as education proxy is the number of elementary school. The method used in this research is panel regression. It can be concluded that health facility negatively affects poverty, which means that the higher the number of health facilities, the lower the percentage of people in poverty at 33 provinces in Indonesia. However, the number of grade school as an education proxy does not affect the percentage of people in poverty at 33 provinces in Indonesia.
Keyword : Poverty, Health Facility, Education Facility, Health Center, Hospital.
Afzal, M., Malik, M.E., Begum, I., Sarwar, K., & Fatima, H. (2012). Relationship among Education, Poverty and Economic Growth in Pakistan: An Econometric Analysis. Journal of Elementary Education, Vol.22, No.1 pp. 23-45.
Awan, M.S., Malik, N., Sarwar, H., & Waqas, M. (2011). Impact of Education on Poverty Reduction. Munich Personal RePEc Archive (MPRA) Paper No.31826.
Faisal, Herry. (2013). Pengaruh Tingkat Pendidikan, Kesehatan terhadap Produktivitas dan Jumlah Penduduk Miskin di Provinsi Kalimantan Barat. Tesis, Universitas Tanjung Pura.
Faturrohmin, Rahmawati. (2011). Pengaruh PDRB, Harapan Hidup dan Melek Huruf terhadap Tingkat Kemiskinan (Studi Kasus 35 Kabupaten/Kota di Jawa Tengah). Skripsi, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah.
Hendra, Roy. (2010). Determinan Kemiskinan Absolut Di Kabupaten/Kota Provinsi Sumatera Utara Tahun 2005-2007. Tesis, MPKP UI.
Janjua, P.Z., & Kamal, U.A. (2014). The Role of Education and Health in Poverty Alleviation A Cross-Country Analysis. British Journal of Economics, Management & Trade 4(6): 896-924, 2014. The Lahore Journal of Economics, 16:1 (Summer 2014): pp. 143-172.
Janjua, P.Z., & Kamal, U.A. (2011). The Role of Education and Income in Poverty Alleviation: A Cross-Country Analysis. The Lahore Journal of Economics, 16:1 (Summer 2011): pp. 143-172.
Komite Penanggulangan Kemiskinan. (2005). Strategi Nasional Penanggulangan Kemiskinan (SNPK). Jakarta: Author.
Maliki, S.B-E., Benhabib, A., & Boutedja, A. (2012). Quantification of the Relationship Poverty-Education in Algeria: A Multinomial Econometric Approach. Topics in Middle Eastern and African Economies, 14, 376-394.
Marinho, E., Campelo, G., Franc, J., and Araujo, Jair. (2017). Impact of Infrastructure Expenses in Strategic Sectors for Brazilian Poverty. EconomiA 18 (2017): pp 244-259.
Nurdyana S, H., Budiono, & Fahmi, M. (2012). Pendidikan dan Kemiskinan; Studi Kasus Provinsi Maluku Utara.
Nirwana, Indah Dewi. (2013). Pengaruh Variabel Pendidikan terhadap Presentase Penduduk Miskin (Studi pada 33 Provinsi di Indonesia, 6 Provinsi di Pulau Jawa, dan 27 Provinsi di Luar Pulau Jawa pada Tahun 2006-2011). Jurnal Ilmiah, Universitas Brawijaya.
Suharto, Edi. (2009). Kemiskinan & Perlindungan Sosial di Indonesia, Menggagas Model Jaminan Sosial Universal Bidang Kesehatan, Bandung : Alfabeta.
Solichin, Mochammad. (2014). Pengaruh Ketersediaan Fasilitas Pendidikan dan Kesehatan Terhadap Kemiskinan di 25 Kabupaten/Kota Provinsi Jawa Barat Tahun 2006-2010. Tesis, Universitas Indonesia.
Todaro, Michael P. dan Smith, Stephen C. (2014). Economic Development.12th Edition. Pearson Education. New Jersey, USA.
Zuluaga, Blanca. (2007). Different Channels of Impact of Education on Poverty: An Analysis for Colombia. Paper.
- There are currently no refbacks.