The Effect Of Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture & Motivation On Employee Performance At Phalombe District Hospital And National Records And Archives Services Of Malawi During Covid-19 Pandemic

McDonald Baluti


This paper assesses the effect of transformational leadership, organizational culture and motivation on employee performance at Phalombe District Hospital and National Records and Archives Services in Malawi during Covid-19 pandemic. It is a quantitative research whose target population is 330 with a sample size of 170 respondents that was determined using Slovin formula. After following ethical considerations, respondents were selected using random probability sampling technique. Data was collected through an online structured questionnaire and analysed by multiple linear regression analysis technique that was done using Statistical Program for Social Science (SPSS) version 26 program as an analysis tool. The research results show that partially transformational leadership has no effect on employee performance, organizational culture has no effect on employee performance and motivation has no effect on employee performance at Phalombe District Hospital and National Records and Archives Services in Malawi during the Covid-19 pandemic.  


Key words: Transformational Leadership; Organizational Culture; Motivation; Employee Performance; Covid-19 Pandemic; Phalombe District Hospital; National Records and Archives Service of Malawi

Full Text:



Anshori, M. Y., Karya, D. F., Muslihah, N., & Herlambang, T. (2020). Analysis of Transformational Leadership Style for Employee Performance with Job Satisfaction as Intervening Variable. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(9s), 3967-3973.

Atikah, K & Qomariah, N. (2020).The Effect of Leadership Style and Organizational Culture and Work Motivation on Lecturer Performance. Jurnal Manajemen Dan Bisnis Indonesia Vol. 6 No.2

Baig, S. A., Iqbal, S., Abrar, M., Baig, I. A., Amjad, F., Zia-ur-Rehman, M., & Awan, M. U. (2021). Impact of leadership styles on employees’ performance with moderating role of positive psychological capital. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 32(9-10), 1085-1105.

Bass, B., & Avolio, B. (2000). Technical Report, Leader form, rater form, and Scoring Key of MLQ From 5x-Short. Mind Garden, Inc.

Bawono, I., R. & Setyadi.E. (2020).The Effect of Technology Mastery and Work Motivation on the Performance of the State Civil Apparatus (ASN) Of Local Governments on the Implementation of Work from Home as an Impact of The Covid-19 Pandemic: Advances in Economics, Business and Management Research. Vol. 176: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Sustainable Innovation-Accounting and Management (ICoSIAMS).

Bisbey, T. M., Kilcullen, M. P., Thomas, E. J., Ottosen, M. J., Tsao, K., & Salas, E. (2019). Safety Culture: An Integration of Existing Models and a Framework for Understanding Its Development. Human Factors, August, 1–15

Bufford, J. A., Bedeian, A. G., & Lindner, J. R. (1995). Management in Extension. Colombus: Ohio State University Extension.

Chitiris, L. 1988. Herzberg’s Proposals and Their Applicability to The Hotel Industry. Journal of Hospitality

Ekhsan. M. & Setiawan, I. 2021.The Role of Motivation Mediation on the Effect of Transformational Leadership Style on Employee Performance. International Journal of Management Science and Information Technology (IJMSIT) Vol. 1, No. 1.

Ekowati, M. et al., (2019).The Effects of Occupational Health and Safety on Employee Performance through Work Satisfaction. International Journal of Research - Granthaalayah Vol.7 (Iss.4)

Fitria.H. 2018.The Influence of Organizational Culture and Trust through the Teacher Performance in the Private Secondary School in Palembang. International Journal Of Scientific & Technology Research Volume 7, Issue 7.

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture and organizations. International Studies of Management & Organization, 10(4), 15-41.

Intanghina. 2009. Pengaruh Budaya Perusahaan Dan Lingkungan Kerja Terhadap Kinerja Karyawan. Jurnal Manajemen. Volume 1 Nomor 1, Hal 1-12

Kamar, K., Novitasari, D., Asbari, M., Winanti, W., & Goestjahjanti, F. S. (2020). Enhancing Employee Performance during the Covid-19 Pandemic: The Role of Readiness for Change Mentality. JDM (Jurnal Dinamika Manajemen), 11(2), 154-166.

Kniffin. K. M., Narayanan, J., Anseel, F., Antonakis, J., Ashford, S. P., Bakker, A. B., Vgt, M. v. (2020). COVID-19 and the workplace: Implications, issues, and insights for future research and action. American Psychologist, 76(1), 63-77.

Lor. W. & Hassan. Z. 2017. The Influence of Leadership on Employee Performance among Jewellery Artisans in Malaysia. International Journal of Accounting & Business Management, Vol. 5 (No.1), April, Page: 14-33

Malawi 2063 (2020).Malawi’s Vision, an Inclusively Self-Reliant Nation. National Planning Commission, Lilongwe Malawi

Mogi, A., Warasto, H. N., & Aesah, S. (2022). Effect of Organizational Culture and Leadership Style on Employee Performance Of PT. Raya Azura Persada, South Jakarta. International Journal of Social and Management Studies, 3(5), 214-224.

Nasution, M.I. & Priangkatara, N. (2022). Work Discipline and Work Motivation on Employee Performance. International Journal of Economics, Social Science, Entrepreneurship and Technology (IJESET) Vol. 1 Issue 1, pp, 50-64.

Nelizulfa, A. (2018). Pengaruh Motivasi, Disiplin Kerja, Lingkungan Kerja Dan Kompensasi Terhadap Kinerja Karyawan. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 53(9), 1689–1699.

Nilasari, B. M., M. Nisfiannoor, and F. R. M. Devinta. 2021. Changes in Motivation that Affect Employee Performance during the Covid 19 Pandemic. Jurnal Aplikasi Manajemen, Volume 19, Number 2, Pages 435–447. Malang: Universitas Brawijaya. http://

Noermijati. 2015. Peran Transformational leadership dan Motivasi Terhadap Employee performanceDenganModerasi Masa Kerja. Jurnal Keuangan Dan Perbankan Vol. 19 No. 2 Hlm. 326-335

Ratnasari, S. L., Sutjahjo, G., & Adam, A. (2020). The effect of job satisfaction, organizational culture, and leadership on employee performance. Ann. Trop. Med. Public Health, 23.

Riyanto, S., Endri E., & Herlisha, N. (2021). Effect of Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance: Mediating Role of Employee Engagement. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 19(3), 162-174.

Riyanto, S., Endri, E., Hamid, A. (2021). The Influence of Transformational Leadership and the Work Environment on Employee Performance: Mediating Role of Discipline. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 27(6), 1-11.

Roz, K. 2019. International Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting Research (IJEBAR) Peer Reviewed – International Journal, Vol-3, Issue-2. (IJEBAR)

Sapta, K.S. et al. (2021). The Role of Technology, Organizational Culture, and Job Satisfaction in Improving Employee Performance during the Covid-19 Pandemic: Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business Vol 8 No 1, 495–505.

Sembiring, M. J., Fatihudin, D., Mochklas, M., & Holisin, I. (2020). Banking employee performance during pandemic Covid-19: Remuneration and motivation. Journal of Xi'an University of Architecture & Technology, 12(VII), 64-71.

Sugiyono. 2014. Educational Research Methods Quantitative, Qualitative, and R&D Approaches. Bandung: Alphabeta.

Sultana, A., Irum, S., Ahmed, K., & Mehmood, N. (2012). Impact of Training on Employee Performance: A Study of Telecommunication Sector in Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of contemporary research in business, 646—661

Thula, M., Matola, J., Nyasulu,T., & Nyasuluet,K., (2020) Assessment of the Impact of COVID-19 on Employment in Malawi (The Employer’s Consultative Association of Malawi (ECAM) and the International Labour Organization (ILO). Lilongwe, Malawi.

World Health Organization. (2020). Mental Health and Psychosocial Considerations during the COVID-19 Outbreak, 18 March 2020 (No. WHO/2019-nCoV/MentalHealth/2020.1). World Health Organization.

Yulianti, R. (2021). The Analysis of Nurse Performance during Covid-19 Pandemic: A Case Study from Private Hospital in Tangerang. Jurnal Manajemen Teori dan Terapan| Journal of Theory and Applied Management, 14(2), 147.


  • There are currently no refbacks.